Ancient DNA Provides New Insights into Ashkenazi Jewish History

Analysis reveals medieval genetic diversity, illuminates founder event

Photograph of a synagogue taken at night. A tree frames the left side. The facade of the building is lit from below. A rosette window is visible against the dark blue sky.
The Old Synagogue of the medieval Jewish community of Erfurt. It is one of the oldest intact synagogues in Europe and now serves as a museum documenting Jewish life in the city. Image: Stadtverwaltung Erfurt


The largest study to date of ancient DNA from Jewish individuals reveals unexpected genetic subgroups in medieval German Ashkenazi Jews and sheds light on the “founder event” in which a small population gave rise to most present-day Ashkenazi Jews.

The findings, spearheaded by geneticists from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Harvard Medical School, were published Nov. 30 in Cell.

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About half of Jewish people around the world today identify as Ashkenazi, meaning that they descend from Jews who lived in Central or Eastern Europe. The term was initially used to define a distinct cultural group of Jews who settled in the 10th century in the Rhineland in western Germany.

Despite much speculation, many gaps exist in our understanding of the origin of Ashkenazi Jews and the demographic upheavals they experienced during the second millennium.

  • Head shot of Shai Carmi, a man with glasses and short dark hair

    A Deeper Dive

    Co-senior author Shai Carmi offers further perspective on the work.