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Enhanced neonatal Fc receptor function improves protection against primate SHIV infection.
Nature.Oct 30, 2014;514(7524):642-5.
Ko SY, Pegu A, Rudicell RS, Yang ZY, Joyce MG, Chen X, Wang K, Bao S, Kraemer TD, Rath T, Zeng M, Schmidt SD, Todd JP, Penzak SR, Saunders KO, Nason MC, Haase AT, Rao SS, Blumberg RS, Mascola JR, Nabel GJ.
1] Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 40, Room 4502, MSC-3005, 40 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-3005, USA  Sanofi, 640 Memorial Drive, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA (R.S.R., Z.-Y.Y. and G.J.N.); Center for Genetics of Host Defense, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75235-8505, USA (M.Z.); University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy, 3500 Camp Bowie Boulevard, RES-340J, Fort Worth, Texas 76107, USA (S.R.P.).
To protect against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) must be active at the portals of viral entry in the gastrointestinal or cervicovaginal tracts. The localization and persistence of antibodies at these sites is influenced by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), whose role in protecting against infection in vivo has not been defined. Here, we show that a bnAb with enhanced FcRn binding has increased gut mucosal tissue localization, which improves protection against lentiviral infection in non-human primates. A bnAb directed to the CD4-binding site of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein (denoted VRC01) was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to increase its binding affinity for FcRn. This enhanced FcRn-binding mutant bnAb, denoted VRC01-LS, displayed increased transcytosis across human FcRn-expressing cellular monolayers in vitro while retaining FcγRIIIa binding and function, including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, at levels similar to VRC01 (the wild type). VRC01-LS had a threefold longer serum half-life than VRC01 in non-human primates and persisted in the rectal mucosa even when it was no longer detectable in the serum. Notably, VRC01-LS mediated protection superior to that afforded by VRC01 against intrarectal infection with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). These findings suggest that modification of FcRn binding provides a mechanism not only to increase serum half-life but also to enhance mucosal localization that confers immune protection. Mutations that enhance FcRn function could therefore increase the potency and durability of passive immunization strategies to prevent HIV-1 infection.