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Paper Chase

Tetherin antagonism by Vpu protects HIV-infected cells from antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. Apr 29, 2014;111(17):6425-30.
Arias JF, Heyer LN, von Bredow B, Weisgrau KL, Moldt B, Burton DR, Rakasz EG, Evans DT.

Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, New England Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, MA 01772.

Abstract:

Tetherin is an IFN-inducible transmembrane protein that inhibits the detachment of enveloped viruses from infected cells. HIV-1 overcomes this restriction factor by expressing HIV-1 viral protein U (Vpu), which down-regulates and degrades tetherin. We report that mutations in Vpu that impair tetherin antagonism increase the susceptibility of HIV-infected cells to antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and conversely that RNAi knockdown of tetherin, but not other cellular proteins down-modulated by Vpu, decreases the susceptibility of HIV-infected cells to ADCC. These results reveal that Vpu protects HIV-infected cells from ADCC as a function of its ability to counteract tetherin. By serving as link between innate and adaptive immunity, the antiviral activity of tetherin may be augmented by virus-specific antibodies, and hence much greater than previously appreciated.