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Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for previously treated HCV genotype 1 infection.

N. Engl. J. Med.. Apr 17, 2014;370(16):1483-93.
Afdhal N, Reddy KR, Nelson DR, Lawitz E, Gordon SC, Schiff E, Nahass R, Ghalib R, Gitlin N, Herring R, Lalezari J, Younes ZH, Pockros PJ, Di Bisceglie AM, Arora S, Subramanian GM, Zhu Y, Dvory-Sobol H, Yang JC, Pang PS, Symonds WT, McHutchison JG, Muir AJ, Sulkowski M, Kwo P, Afdhal N.

From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston (N.A.); University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.R.R.); University of Florida, Gainesville (D.R.N.); Texas Liver Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (E.L.), and the North Texas Research Institute, Arlington (R.G.) - both in Texas; Henry Ford Health Systems, Detroit (S.C.G.); Center for Liver Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami (E.S.); ID Care, Hillsborough, NJ (R.N.); Atlanta Gastroenterology Associates, Atlanta (N.G.); Quality Medical Research, Nashville (R.H.), and Gastro One, Germantown (Z.H.Y.) - both in Tennessee; Quest Clinical Research, San Francisco (J.L.), Scripps Clinic, La Jolla (P.J.P.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (G.M.S., Y.Z., H.D.-S., J.C.Y., P.S.P., W.T.S., J.G.M.) - all in California; Saint Louis University, St. Louis (A.M.D.); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (S.A.); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (A.J.M.); Johns Hopkins Medical Center, Baltimore (M.S.); and Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis (P.K.).

Abstract:

BACKGROUND

Effective treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection in patients who have not had a sustained virologic response to prior interferon-based therapy represents an unmet medical need.

METHODS

We conducted a phase 3, randomized, open-label study involving patients infected with HCV genotype 1 who had not had a sustained virologic response after treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin, with or without a protease inhibitor. Patients were randomly assigned to receive the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir and the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir in a once-daily, fixed-dose combination tablet for 12 weeks, ledipasvir-sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for 12 weeks, ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for 24 weeks, or ledipasvir-sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for 24 weeks. The primary end point was a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of therapy.

RESULTS

Among the 440 patients who underwent randomization and were treated, 20% had cirrhosis and 79% had HCV genotype 1a infection. The rates of sustained virologic response were high in all treatment groups: 94% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87 to 97) in the group that received 12 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir; 96% (95% CI, 91 to 99) in the group that received 12 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir and ribavirin; 99% (95% CI, 95 to 100) in the group that received 24 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir; and 99% (95% CI, 95 to 100) in the group that received 24 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir and ribavirin. No patient discontinued treatment owing to an adverse event. The most common adverse events were fatigue, headache, and nausea.

CONCLUSIONS

Treatment with a once-daily, single-tablet regimen of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response among patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had not had a sustained virologic response to prior interferon-based treatment. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; ION-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01768286.).