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Paper Chase

Robust tumor immunity to melanoma mediated by interleukin-9-producing T cells.

Nat. Med.. 07 08, 2012;18(8):1248-53.
Purwar R, Schlapbach C, Xiao S, Kang HS, Elyaman W, Jiang X, Jetten AM, Khoury SJ, Fuhlbrigge RC, Kuchroo VK, Clark RA, Kupper TS.

Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract:

Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is a T cell cytokine that acts through a γC-family receptor on target cells and is associated with inflammation and allergy. We determined that T cells from mice deficient in the T helper type 17 (T(H)17) pathway genes encoding retinoid-related orphan receptor γ (ROR-γ) and IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) produced abundant IL-9, and we found substantial growth inhibition of B16F10 melanoma in these mice. IL-9-blocking antibodies reversed this tumor growth inhibition and enhanced tumor growth in wild-type (WT) mice. Il9r(-/-) mice showed accelerated tumor growth, and administration of recombinant IL-9 (rIL-9) to tumor-bearing WT and Rag1(-/-) mice inhibited melanoma as well as lung carcinoma growth. Adoptive transfer of tumor-antigen-specific T(H)9 cells into both WT and Rag1(-/-) mice suppressed melanoma growth; this effect was abrogated by treatment with neutralizing antibodies to IL-9. Exogenous rIL-9 inhibited tumor growth in Rag1(-/-) mice but not in mast-cell-deficient mice, suggesting that the targets of IL-9 in this setting include mast cells but not T or B cells. In addition, we found higher numbers of T(H)9 cells in normal human skin and blood compared to metastatic lesions of subjects with progressive stage IV melanoma. These results suggest a role for IL-9 in tumor immunity and offer insight into potential therapeutic strategies.