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Home/Research/Paper Chase/A DNA damage response screen identifies RHINO, a 9-1-1 and TopBP1 interacting protein required for ATR signaling.
Department of Genetics, Harvard University Medical School, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
The DNA damage response (DDR) is brought about by a protein kinase cascade that orchestrates DNA repair through transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. Cell cycle arrest is a hallmark of the DDR. We screened for cells that lacked damage-induced cell cycle arrest and uncovered a critical role for Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination proteins in ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related) signaling. Three DDR candidates, the RNA processing protein INTS7, the circadian transcription factor CLOCK, and a previously uncharacterized protein RHINO, were recruited to sites of DNA damage. RHINO independently bound the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex (9-1-1) and the ATR activator TopBP1. RHINO was recruited to sites of DNA damage by the 9-1-1 complex to promote Chk1 activation. We suggest that RHINO functions together with the 9-1-1 complex and TopBP1 to fully activate ATR.