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Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, the Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Several laser and non-laser refractive surgical procedures have been used to modify the shape of the cornea and correct myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Introduction of the excimer laser to reshape the cornea has resulted in remarkable developments in the correction of these refractive errors. Combined with other advanced ophthalmological instruments, laser refractive eye surgery has resulted in a substantial rise in the safety, efficacy, and predictability of surgical outcomes. Despite these advances, certain limitations and complications persist. In this review, we describe the history, preoperative assessment, surgical techniques, outcomes, and complications of laser refractive surgery.