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Development of an in vitro reconstitution assay for glucose transporter 4 translocation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A..Dec 21, 1999;96(26):14919-24.
Inoue G, Cheatham B, Kahn CR.
Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
In an attempt to define the mechanism of insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) translocation, we have developed an in vitro reconstitution assay. Donor membranes from 3T3-L1 adipocytes transfected with mycGlut4 were incubated with plasma membrane (PM) from nontransfected 3T3-L1 cells, and the association was assessed by using two types of centrifugation assays. Association of mycGlut4 vesicles derived from donor membranes with the PM was concentration-, temperature-, time-, and Ca(2+)-dependent but ATP-independent. Addition of a syntaxin 4 fusion protein produced a biphasic response, increasing association at low concentration and inhibiting association at higher concentrations. PM from insulin-stimulated cells showed an enhanced association as compared with those from untreated cells. Use of donor membranes from insulin-stimulated cells further enhanced the association and also enhanced association to the PM from isolated rat adipocytes. Addition of cytosol, GTP, or guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate decreased the association. In summary, insulin-induced Glut4 translocation can be reconstituted in vitro to a limited extent by using isolated membranes. This association appears to involve protein-protein interactions among the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complex proteins. Finally, the ability of insulin to enhance association depends on insulin-induced changes in the PM and, to a lesser extent, in the donor membranes.