Headache? Back pain? At the first sign of pain, you might reach for a pain-relieving medicine to sooth your bodily woes. Analgesics, the most frequently used medications in the United States, are commonly used to treat a variety of medical conditions, but they may also be doing some damage to your ears, according to a new study.
Women who took ibuprofen or acetaminophen two or more days per week had an increased risk of hearing loss, according to Sharon G. Curhan, Harvard Medical School instructor in medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital and first author on a study published in the Sept. 15, 2012 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.
“Possible mechanisms might be that NSAIDs may reduce blood flow to the cochlea—the hearing organ—and impair its function,” said Curhan. “Acetaminophen may deplete factors that protect the cochlea from damage.”
The more often a woman took either of the medications, the higher her risk for hearing loss. Also, the link between the medicines and hearing loss tended to be greater in women younger than 50 years old, especially for those who took ibuprofen six or more days per week.
There was no association between aspirin use and hearing loss.
The researchers prospectively examined the relationship between frequency of aspirin, ibuprofen and acetaminophen use and risk of hearing loss among women in the Nurses’ Health Study II.
Data from 62,261 women ages 31 to 48 years at baseline was studied. The women were followed for 14 years, from 1995 to 2009, and 10,012 women self-reported hearing loss.
Compared with women who used ibuprofen less than once per week, those who used ibuprofen 2 to 3 days per week had a 13 percent increased risk for hearing loss, while women who used the medication 4 to 5 days per week had a 21 percent increased risk. For those who used ibuprofen six or more days per week, the increased risk was 24 percent.
Compared with women who used acetaminophen less than once per week, women who used acetaminophen 2 to 3 days per week had an 11 percent increased risk for hearing loss, while women taking the medicine 4 to 5 days per week had a 21 percent increased risk.
Although analgesics are widely available without a prescription, they are still medicines that carry potential side effects, Curhan said.
“If individuals find a need to take these types of medications regularly, they should consult with their health care professional to discuss the risks and benefits and to explore other possible alternatives,” she said.
More than 50 percent of American adults suffer from high-frequency hearing loss by the time they reach 60 years old. One-third of women in their 50s and nearly two-thirds in their 60s have experienced hearing loss.
According to the World Health Organization, adult-onset hearing loss is the sixth most common disease burden in high-income countries.
This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (DC010811 and CA50385) and by Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
Adapted from a Brigham and Women's news release.