HMS & HSDM CLASS DAY
How to Stay Human in Medicine
A writer, psychiatrist, Rhodes scholar, and Harvard MD from the Class of 1973, Stephen Bergman, in his Class Day keynote address, issued a call to the graduating medical and dental students to aim their sights not at “Me” but at a newly emerging “We,” animated by an inclusive and global esprit de corps.
“When my first novel—The House of God, the story of my medical internship—came out 30 years ago, it was viewed as a radical book,” Bergman said, “and I was not always welcome in gatherings like this.” As much a warning as an introduction, the comment set the tone for Bergman’s talk. His book is an edgy satire about medical training, written under the pen name Samuel Shem.
From the novel, Bergman related several “Laws of the House,” including: “The delivery of medical care is to do as much nothing as possible.”
“There’s something wise about this law,” he said. “The body has amazing healing properties. It’s saying: ‘Stay out of the way and let life heal.’ …The only interns who got into trouble in the House were too ‘aggressive,’ invading the body mindlessly.”
But the laws also included this: “The patient is the one with the disease,” a formulation that distances patients from care providers.
“In the years since, I’ve reconsidered this,” Bergman said. “It can be seen as ‘the doctor’s disease,’ which goes, ‘I, a doctor, am separate from, and different than, you the patient.’ Treating patients like objects—‘that liver in room 4’—was a symptom of our distress as interns.” It degrades both the patient and the doctor.
Broadening his focus, Bergman said, “My generation came of age in the ’60s. We grew up with the idea that if we saw an injustice and took action together, we could change things: we helped put the civil rights laws on the books, and we ended the Vietnam War.”
He recounted the tumultuous May of 1970, the end of his first year at HMS. “Four students were murdered by the Ohio State National Guard at Kent State for protesting the war,” he said, “and all over the country universities went out on strike. We at Harvard were just starting the kidney block, and had to decide whether to join the strike. …[Ultimately] we went. I never learned the kidney. In The House of God, it is a vaguely described organ, located somewhere between the back of the neck and the back of the knee.”
Upon entering internship, Bergman said, “we were idealistic young doctors, wanting to learn, dedicated to treating our patients humanely. But soon we were asked to do things that we thought were inhumane. We were caught in a profound conflict between the received wisdom of the medical system and the call of the human heart.”
Bergman then presented the graduating students with four suggestions for “how to stay human in medicine:”
The first, he said, is to “stay connected. Isolation is deadly; connection heals. …Under pressure, we interns got isolated.” But, he said, “when you’re in trouble, do not withdraw. The way to stay human is to move toward others. Lean into life, not away.”
“Number 2: Speak up. When we notice injustice or cruelty in the medical system—and believe me you will—speak up. Speaking up is necessary not only to call attention to the wrongs of the system, speaking up is essential for your survival as a human being.”
The third is to learn empathy “…by putting yourself in another person’s shoes, feelingly … by living not just in the ‘I’ or the ‘You,’ but the ‘We.’”
“One of the most encouraging developments in medicine,” Bergman said, “is the increased number of women. In my class, there were less than 10 percent; now it’s over 50.”
“Number 4: Learn your trade, in the world. You have to be competent to be compassionate. But the patient is never only the patient—the patient is the spouse, the family, the friends, the community…. The patient is the world. And here’s the good news: you graduates are totally awesome in one particularly important way that my generation was not: you are citizens of the world. …You are not isolated from, nor suspicious of, different people and cultures; you are with them—even if through tweets and twitters…. You are the hope of the planet, and I—and your families and friends here today—are so proud of you it brings tears to our eyes.”
But Bergman also shared some bad news: “You are about to enter a disaster area: the healthcare industry. The system is broken. It is worse for doctors, worse for patients and better only for the insurance industry.”
He asked, to great applause, “Why in the world should healthcare be for profit?” The treatment he prescribed was a universal system of healthcare coverage, tort reform and federally supported medical education in return for national service.
“We doctors are privileged,” Bergman said. “We are present in this basic human journey; we are there in the realness of the vital events in people’s lives, from birth to death. Medicine is ‘caring,’ in the full sense, ‘taking care of,’ being with the patient—even being with the life-force itself. It is hard to care. …And even trying to care, sometimes is a hard thing to do; not only caring for patients, but caring for the others in our doctor’s lives.”
“Finally,” Bergman said, “that’s the challenge, the thrill, and the joy in The House of God: to become aware that the pain and suffering of others is the same as our own; to become aware that if we are ignorant of our neighbor’s sorrow, we bring sorrow to our own door; and with that awareness, to take anger and spin it to compassion; to give solace, to heal. For at our best, we don’t just doctor, we heal.”
HSPH CLASS DAY
Importance of Public Health Celebrated
Public health is at the threshold of a new era, said Dean Julio Frenk at the HSPH commencement ceremony on Class Day, June 4. The landscape of public health has changed radically, he said. It is now fundamentally global, and there is an increasing emphasis on integration—across disciplines and levels of analysis from gene to globe.
“Global” is not the opposite of “domestic,” said Frenk. Global refers to processes that affect every population in the world through our growing interdependence. While we pursue the highest standards of academic rigor, we must at the same time provide solutions to the most pressing health challenges.
As this year’s graduates carry forth the School’s mission in their own careers, Frenk said, this next generation of public health leaders must focus on turning knowledge into evidence that can guide practice.
“Knowledge—the fundamental product of universities—is truly the most potent lever to improve our world,” said Frenk. “With an evidence base and an ethical underpinning, public health interventions are a powerful force for enlightened social transformation.”
The commencement address was delivered by author Atul Gawande, an associate professor at HSPH and an HMS associate professor of surgery at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Gawande described how different healthcare systems struggle with increasingly complex problems. He recounted visiting a hospital in his ancestral village in India, where he saw the heroic efforts of a few surgeons to accommodate the needs of rooms packed with patients, even giving patients chemotherapy.
He also described a case in Boston of a woman with a complex set of medical problems that arose because she did not get the preventive care she needed. Though a team of specialists went to great lengths to treat her, in the end she died of a simple pneumonia infection. “We, too, were struggling with a system that is failing our people,” Gawande said. Those working in public health, he said, will be the ones providing solutions to these failures.
“The needs of our world have shifted in ways that alter our conception of public health,” Gawande said. “There’s been an explosion of complex needs like these as much of the world’s population lives past infectious disease. And so, consider my field of surgery. We now have 230 million people a year undergoing major surgery in the world. The volume now exceeds that of childbirth, but with death rates 10 to 100 times higher. And, on the other hand, we still have 2 billion people without access to essential surgery for endangered childbirth, for traumas, for other kinds of emergencies. If we are to save lives and use health resources wisely, we have to think about our health systems in all their dimensions—how they cope with everything from malaria to surgery. For we’ve generated tremendous scientific knowledge, but not the capacity to deliver on it reliably, safely, humanely or equitably. Closing this gap is the work of public health. It has become the pivotal struggle of our era.”
Hope O’Brien, the student speaker, said that she defines public health as “a more just and healthy future.” The path to that future may involve a host of different strategies depending on the location and needs of a community, from clean water to a campaign to remind people to wear seat belts or universal health insurance.
“This will be a very special class for me, my first commencement as dean,” Frenk said in his closing remarks. He asked graduates to take a moment to look around at their neighbors: “You may be sitting beside a future minister of health or someone who will discover or develop a solution to a centuries-old disease.” Finally, he urged the graduates to consider the School a place to which they can always return for consultation, support and fellowship.
The School granted degrees to 491 students: 16 Doctor of Philosophy degrees; two, Doctor of Public Health; 54, Doctor of Science; 13, Master of Arts; 278, Master of Public Health; and 128, Master of Science. Sixty countries, 39 states, and Puerto Rico were represented. Six out of every 10 members of the Class of 2009 are women.
A webcast of the program is available at www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/commencement-2009.
Covering Care for an Aging Population
On June 4, a day when both The Boston Globe and The New York Times ran stories about people struggling to face rising healthcare costs during the current economic downturn, the Alumni Week Faculty Symposium focused, aptly, on healthcare policy.
As the auditorium filled, George Thibault, ’69, welcomed the crowd and introduced moderator Barbara McNeil, the Ridley Watts professor and chair of Health Care Policy, an HMS department founded 21 years ago.
The topics the Health Care Policy faculty selected to discuss—the uninsured, the aging population, the high cost of healthcare, and the effectiveness of care—are all timely and, in some cases, dire.
The number of uninsured adults ages 18 to 64 in the United States increased 23 percent from 2000 to 2007, according to speaker and assistant professor J. Michael McWilliams. Predictions put the 2010 number up from 46 million in 2007 to 52 million.
McWilliams zoomed in on the fastest growing segment of the uninsured population: people age 50 to 64. Universal Medicare coverage after 65 improves health outcomes for the previously uninsured, he said, so earlier coverage should benefit this group. Though expensive up front, the costs of universal coverage for this population might be partially recouped later on. Uninsured people often delay care, and, in turn, incur higher healthcare costs once they become insured.
While the uninsured feature prominently in reform talks, few are talking about long-term care for our aging population, according to assistant professor David Stevenson, even though seven out of 10 people will eventually need such care. “Most families will need it,” he said. And it will cost them. Fewer than 10 percent of people carry long-term care insurance and nursing home costs average $70,000 per year. “There are no easy answers,” he said. “But long-term care should be part of the policy discussion.”
Not only are the questions tough, but the stakes are high. “The system will implode—the economy will implode—if we can’t control healthcare spending,” said professor Michael Chernew, who pointed out that while health insurance premiums were up 119 percent between 1999 and 2008, wages rose by only 34 percent.
Chernew introduced a concept called value-based insurance design, which aims to reduce the cost of high-value healthcare—for instance, by making blood pressure medication, which reduces the risk of heart damage, more affordable. Such a program might be good news for people who, as The New York Times reported that day, are filling only the prescriptions they can afford.
Determining what, exactly, counts as high-value care is difficult to assess. Even simply assessing safe and effective care is challenging, according to professor Sharon-Lise Normand, the final speaker. Normand analyzed two treatments for which controversial safety results have been published: rosiglitazone and drug-eluting stents. According to her statistical analyses, these treatments are not as unsafe as reported, yet doctors and regulatory boards are basing medical decisions on these faulty reports.
Ultimately, healthcare policy is all about decision-making and designing systems that encourage the most appropriate and most effective care. This message hit home for the alums in the audience who, during the coffee break, became embroiled in shared stories of caring for themselves and their own families. When the session closed, the auditorium full of doctors felt more like a room full of concerned citizens.
25TH REUNION SYMPOSIUM
The Varieties of Medical Experience
Answering the question, “What do you want to do when you grow up?” has not been as easy or as obvious for Harvard medical students as it might seem, according to members of the Class of ’84 who spoke at the 25th Reunion Symposium.
The June 4 program on the Quad featured a morning of talks from two hospital presidents, two deans, a venture capitalist and an inventor. The afternoon session showcased advances in cardiac physiology, regenerative neuroscience, women’s healthcare, doctor–patient communication and electronic medical records.
For some people who “always wanted to be a doctor,” the first adult career decision comes at the time of applying for a residency program, said morning speaker Edward Hundert, senior lecturer in medical ethics at HMS and dean of student affairs from 1990 to 1997.
The bright, hard-working, high-achieving HMS students tend to be exquisitely sensitive to detecting and meeting expectations, Hundert said. The personal emotional pull of one specialty can conflict with the field a student feels pushed toward by their perception of expectations from parents or teachers. Sometimes, rarely, a fourth-year student even realizes practicing medicine is not what he wants to do at all, Hundert said.
This realization came a little later to Anula Kusum Jayasuriya, managing director and founder of the Evolvence India Life Science Fund.
Jayasuriya was 11 when her brother, 24, suffered severe brain damage in an auto accident in their native Sri Lanka, motivating her to become a physician. Seven years after graduating with her MD and PhD degrees, she entered Harvard Business School and never looked back. “I found what I loved,” said Jayasuriya, who earns her living as a venture capitalist, but still sees herself first and foremost as a pediatrician.
She was one of five speakers in the morning session by ’84 alums who had chosen paths outside of traditional clinical practice or research.
Another was classmate and fellow MBA-holder Peter Slavin, president of Massachusetts General Hospital and HMS professor of health care policy. Slavin has navigated the business side of medicine to try to improve healthcare.
“The only way to get ideas into the market is to interact with industry,” he said. “We need to do a better job of policing ourselves. We need to maintain our integrity and get the costs down.”
To the south, Cato Laurencin, dean of the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, is less than one year into his 12-point plan to lead the integrated medical and dental schools, research and medical practices into a top tier medical center. “The most important thing I learned at Harvard was to be an agent for change,” Laurencin said.
Meanwhile, Fred St. Goar, director of interventional cardiology at a private clinic in California’s Silicon Valley, has spent the last 10 years inventing and developing an endovascular device that can repair a mitral valve without open-heart surgery. The implantable clip is approved in Europe, but the clinical study data review is still pending at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
The afternoon session was devoted to selected classmates who conducted original research or blazed new trails in medical practice.
Anthony Muslin, director of the Center for Cardiovascular Research at the Washington University School of Medicine, has found that a signaling pathway involving well-known AKT enzymes underlies the exercise-induced growth of the heart in athletes and may convert pathological processes into beneficial physiological ones with drugs now being tested in clinical trials.
Paula Johnson, chief of the Division of Women’s Health at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and an HMS professor of medicine, explained how a better understanding of sex differences in health and disease and a more comprehensive approach to women’s health can improve the value of healthcare and improve the health of the overall population.
An HMS professor of surgery and of neurology at MGH, Jeffrey Macklis reviewed the dramatic advances in developmental and regenerative neuroscience during the last 25 years. He described mouse studies in his lab showing how a specific sequence of molecular signals from early development can direct the cellular repair of targeted neural progenitor cells. In adult mice, newly recruited corticospinal neurons grow all the way down the spinal cord and connect. “We’re not there yet in humans,” he said.
Perhaps prompted by his Silicon Valley upbringing and or the teasing of his tech-savvy siblings, pediatric cardiovascular surgeon Redmond Burke developed a secure web-based electronic medical record system by imbedding an informational technology genius into his congenital heart surgery team based at Miami Children’s Hospital. The system, called I-Rounds, integrates patient data, provides crib-side real-time viewing, and even connects families with patients and other families.
Speaker Ronald Epstein, professor of family medicine at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, has found in his research on patient-centered care that doctors who are truly responsive to patient concerns (as revealed in audio recordings and transcripts) are more likely to prescribe appropriate medications and be less reactive to patients’ requests for medications they have seen in advertisements.
“Everyone involved in the [symposium] planning was overwhelmed both by the remarkable diversity of career paths and by the incredible achievements of our classmates,” said Hundert, a co-organizer. “If none of the 10 who spoke had been available, we could easily have had 10 other members of the Class of ’84 who would have given equally amazing talks.”
—Carol Cruzan Morton
ALUMNI DAY SYMPOSIUM
When the White Coat Comes with a Pen
Some authors have been composing stories since they could hold a pencil, so natural and insistent is their gift for writing. Others—the literary late bloomers—may take decades to uncover their talent. For Jerome Groopman, that moment came in his early 40s when he found himself, inexplicably, on the brink of a midlife crisis.
“I was desperately in love with my wife. And I had no interest in sports cars,” said Groopman, the Dina and Raphael Recanati professor of medicine at HMS and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, speaking on June 5 at the Alumni Day Symposium, “Doctors as Writers.” Rejecting the usual alternatives, Groopman decided to write. Sitting at his kitchen table in the dusky hours before dawn, he banged out three stories that, after much reworking, would appear in his first book, The Measure of Our Days. One of them, an edgy tale about a wealthy cancer-ridden patient, would so impress the then editor of The New Yorker that she offered him a regular gig as staff writer. “Tina Brown said my story was hot,” Groopman said.
There is a special thrill in hearing the story behind a writer’s stories. The nearly 200 attendees at the symposium, held beneath an enormous tent on the Quad lawn, were thoroughly engaged as they heard Groopman and three other well-known physician-authors—Perri Klass, Elissa Ely and Stephen Bergman (aka Samuel Shem)—recount how they got their start as writers. What was striking, as symposium organizer George Thibault, HMS ’69 and president and CEO of the Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, noted in his introduction, was their variety.
“I got my start as a writer growing up in a household with a mother who thought everyone should be a writer,” said Klass, HMS ’86, who has two siblings, both writers. In fact, all three would turn their mother’s love of stories to their advantage. “You could always get out of walking the dog by saying, ‘Mom, I just had an idea I need to write down,’” she said.
Ely was also deeply influenced by her family and in particular her father, who died when he was 35 and she was 5. “He disappeared into Memorial Sloan-Kettering and never came out,” she said, adding that this loss, and her quest to understand it, haunted her early stories and still drives her writing. “After 46 years, I’m still writing about my father,” said Ely, HMS ’88, a psychiatrist who is a regular contributor to The Boston Globe and National Public Radio.
It was later in life, during a Rhodes scholarship at Oxford working in a lab studying cockroaches, that Bergman, HMS ’73, decided he wanted to be a writer (also see “HMS & HSDM Class Day,” page 1). One day, he told the director of his lab who, with characteristic British aplomb, responded, “Well then, have a sherry.”
Despite their diverse beginnings, there were common themes running through the tales. Several of the speakers described in agonizing and amusing detail their early disappointments. Klass, who is currently a professor of journalism and medicine at New York University, received nearly 600 rejection notes before publishing her first article.
Groopman described making the rounds of New York editors to sell his first book. One—an older woman with bouffant hair and red nails who looked like she had just flown in from a canasta game in West Palm Beach—said, “Doctor? I’m sure you’re a very good doctor.” She then went on to tell him what was wrong with his stories, namely that their characters did not demonstrate the proper number of epiphanies.
Ironically, the story that so impressed Brown, The New Yorker editor, was a tale about an arrogant cancer patient who has a remission only to realize how empty his life is. “It really was an epiphany that didn’t end happily,” Groopman said.
Doctors hear and live out stories like that every day, which is why Klass said she prefers writing fiction to nonfiction. “When you write fiction you can choose the ending,” she said. “The hardest thing about medicine, as you all know, is that you cannot always choose the ending.”
STATE OF THE SCHOOL
HMS Dean Addresses Alums on State of the School
On June 5, Dean Jeffrey Flier addressed some 100 gathered HMS alums to update them on School news from the past year. Flier’s remarks included discussions of HMS’s financial situation, progress on major strategic initiatives, and other highlights.
Flier began with a tribute to Daniel Tosteson, who served as dean of HMS for 20 years and who died on May 27. In honor of Dean Tosteson, the crowd observed a moment of silence.
Flier then moved on to a topic of deep concern to many—the financial crisis. He addressed the issue frankly, speaking about the profound and unprecedented effect of the global economic situation on the finances of the University and its schools. He cited several examples of ways in which HMS is addressing the issue, including examining “all possible realignments” of some of HMS’s core administrative and academic functions; rebuilding and strengthening the School’s fundraising program; and identifying new and creative ways to attract sponsored research and other novel sources of revenue. Flier commented on the availability of federal stimulus funds and the resulting “feverish grant writing” by many HMS faculty. “We are sure that we will receive our fair share [of this funding],” said Flier, “and this will bolster our research programs, as well as create jobs.”
Speaking of research, Flier noted with pride the recognition that HMS’s extraordinary faculty have garnered in recent months, including an Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award, a MacArthur “genius” grant, and several Howard Hughes Medical Institute early career awards, among many others. Also on the topic of research, Flier discussed the priorities for the School’s future that emerged from the yearlong strategic planning process, which he launched in September 2007 upon becoming dean. Noting that “it is a completely different world financially” from the one in which the strategic planning took place, Flier assured those in attendance that the School is nevertheless moving ahead in several key areas. He presented updates on three: plans for the future of therapeutic discovery at HMS; an initiative to promote collaboration among the strong but disparate community of researchers in human genetics; and a vision for neurobiology that will more effectively link the basic science research on the Quad with the disease-related and basic science research in HMS’s academic medical centers.
In fact, interdisciplinary and cross-institutional collaboration will be vital to the future strength of the Harvard medical community. A major example of such cooperation has already proved to be a tremendous success and a boon to researchers. “The single most important area of achievement in the last year,” remarked Flier, “was probably the initiation of Harvard Catalyst, a pan-Harvard initiative between the Medical School and all its affiliated hospitals in the area of clinical and translational research.”
After speaking briefly about conflict of interest and plans for development of the University’s space in Allston, Flier concluded on an upbeat note. “Despite all the difficulties of the past year,” he said, “I remain extremely optimistic for Harvard Medical School. It is both my personality and the nature of the institution.”
YEAR END AWARDS
Student, Faculty, and Staff Honors for 2009
HMS Student Awards
Elizabeth Asch and Rupinder Kaur Legha, Richard C. Cabot Prize
Adam Friedman and Sunil Anil Sheth, Henry Asbury Christian Award
Meera Kotagal and Dominika Seidman, Community Service Award
Munirih Qualls, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Excellence in Emergency Medicine Award
Matthew Rivara, The Gerald S. Foster Award
Ariela Marshall, Bemy Jelin ’91 Prize
Claudia Diaz, Emily Gillett, Brittany Murray, Fausto Ortiz and Lauren Steward, Multiculturalism Award
Molly Collins, Leonard Tow Humanism in Medicine Award
Joanna Choi, The New England Pediatric Society Prize
Zuzana Tothova and Marc Wein, Leon Reznick Memorial Prize
Brice Gaudillière and Adam Numis, Dr. Sirgay Sanger Award
Gretchen Domek, Esther Freeman and Dominika Seidman, Rose Seegal Prize
John Hanna and Kevin King, James Tolbert Shipley Prize
Ashley Morris, Robert H. Ebert Primary Care Achievement Award
Rahul Sheth and Elizabeth Stover, PASTEUR Award
Faculty and Staff Awards
David Cardozo, assistant professor of neurobiology, Best Preclinical Instructor
Julian Seifter, associate professor of medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Best Clinical Instructor
Joel Katz, assistant professor of medicine at BWH, Best Clinical Instructor
David Hirsh, instructor in medicine at Cambridge Health Alliance, Best Clinical Instructor
Gary Setnik, assistant professor in medicine at Mt. Auburn Hospital, Best Clinical Instructor
Hope Ricciotti, associate professor of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive biology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Best Clinical Instructor
Joshua Nagler, assistant professor of pediatrics at Children’s Hospital Boston, Best Clinical Instructor
Charles McCabe, professor of surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital, Best Clinical Instructor (posthumous)
David Hirsh, instructor in medicine at Cambridge Health Alliance, Leonard Tow Humanism in Medicine Award
Ronald Arky, the Charles S. Davidson Distinguished Professor of Medicine, Overall Contribution
Health Sciences and Technology Teaching Awards
Barbara Fullerton, assistant professor of otology and laryngology at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and James Kobler, assistant professor of surgery at MGH, London Teaching Award
Peter Szolovits, McMahon Mentoring Award
Elizabeth Thiele, Seidman Prize
Ernst Berndt, Biomedical Enterprise Program Teaching Award
HSDM Faculty, Staff, and Student Awards
Cara Riley, Harvard Dental Alumni Association Gold Medal
Estee Wang, Harvard Dental Alumni Association Silver Medal
Maiko Sakai, Dr. Norman B. Nesbett Medal
Behnam Eslami, James H. Shaw Award
Ryan Blissett, Joseph L. Henry Award
Jayapriyaa Ranjini Shanmugham, James M. Dunning Award
Per-Ingvar Branemark, Goldhaber Award
Thomas Dodson, associate professor of oral and maxillofacial surgery, Distinguished Senior Faculty Award
Robert White, assistant professor of restorative dentistry and biomaterials sciences, Distinguished Junior Faculty Award
Brian Chang, lecturer on restorative dentistry and biomaterials sciences, and Shigemi Nagai, assistant professor of restorative dentistry and biomaterials sciences; Outstanding Faculty Teaching Award
Gayatri Gunda, Gerald Shklar Award
HSPH Prizes and Awards
Class of 2009
Ashley Carlson, James H. Ware Award for Achievement in the Practice of Public Health
Rena Greifinger, Albert Schweitzer Award
Lindsay Rosenfeld, Dr. Fang-Ching Sun Memorial Award
Shabnam Hafiz, Gareth M. Green Award for Excellence in Public Health
Tomoko Onoda, Student Recognition Award
Marleen Welsh, Edgar Haber Award in Biological Sciences
Kaustubh Adhikari, Robert B. Reed Prize for Excellence in Biostatisical Science
Lana Dinic, Uwe Brinkmann Memorial Travel Award
Kathleen Wirth, Teaching Assistant Award
Paul Catalano, senior lecturer on biostatistics, Roger L. Nichols Excellence in Teaching Award
William Hsiao, K.T. Li professor of economics; Xihong Lin, professor of biostatistics; Katherine Swarz; professor of health economics and policy; and Nancy Turnball, associate dean for educational programs, Mentoring Award
S. Bryn Austin, assistant professor in the Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, and Deborah Devaux, adjunct lecturer on health policy and management, Teaching Citation