The scholarly and research activities of the Department are extensive, diverse, and cutting edge, ranging from clinical to translational to basic science, and extend across all of the affiliated institutions. Particular areas of current research interest include cancer diagnosis and biology, genetics and epigenetics, informatics, immunology, neuroscience and vascular biology. In addition, the Department has initiated efforts to develop centers of excellence in emerging specialty areas of Pathology including translational immunology, molecular microbiology and the microbiome, and molecular and computational pathology. Annual grant support for research in Harvard Pathology exceeds $50 million total direct costs. The Department also has extensive graduate and post-graduate/post-doctoral mentored research-training programs in many areas of basic and translational research, presently comprising approximately 200 research trainees.