- Introduction to Clinical Research Training
- Medical Education
- United Kingdom Clinical Scholars Research Training
- Vanderbilt Hall
- Financial Aid
- Office of the Registrar
- Campus Planning and Facilities
- Ombuds Office
- Committee on Microbiological Safety
- Human Resources
- HMS Foundation Funds
- Office for Academic and Clinical Affairs
- Joint Committee on the Status of Women
- The Academy
- Global Health Research Core
- Global Clinical Scholars Research Training Program
- HMA Standing Committee on Animals
- Office of Research Compliance
- Global & Community Health
- Harvard Medical School Event Calendar
- Contact @HMS
- Office of Diversity RIA Program
- The Dean's Perspective
- Department of Pathology
- HMS NEXT
- Harvard Mahoney Neuroscience Institute
- OHRA Home
- Office of Research Subject Protection
- Tools and Technology
- Alumni Association
- Cancer Biology & Therapeutics Program
- HMS Information Technology
- HMS TransMed Program
- Introduction to the Practice of American Medicine
- Office of Communications & External Relations
- Office of Global Education
- Shenzhen-HMS Initiative in International Education
- test page
- Safety Quality and Informatics Leadership
- Human Resources
- Jobs @ HMS
- Contact us
- Dental Medicine
- Harvard University
Critical Thinking Bibliographic Resources
Critical Thinking Bibliographic Resources
Interest Group Resources:
(Please note: In order to view the resources below, you must be logged into eCommons in a separate tab in the same browser window in order to view).
Instructions to view password protected resources
Press CTRL+T to open a new tab
Log into eCommons in that new tab
Return to the Academy website tab and click on the resource you wish to view
If you are logged in as instructed, the article/ resource will pop up. If you are not logged in as instructed, you will receive an error message.
Balla JI, Heneghan C, Glasziou P, Thompson M, Balla M. A Model for Reflection for Good Clinical Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2009; 15; 964-969.
Bedau, Hugo. Barnett, Sylvan. CRITICAL THINKING: A BRIEF GUIDE (Boston: Freeman and Worth, 1957)
Bordage, Georges. (1999). Why did I miss the diagnosis? Some cognitive explanations and educational implications. Academic Medicine. 74; 10.
Borrell-Carrio, Francesc. Epstein, Ronald M. Preventing Errors in Clinical Practice: A Call for Self-Awareness. Ann Fam Med 2004;2:310-316.
Bowen, Judith L. (2006). Educational Strategies to Promote Clinical Diagnostic Reasoning. Medical Education. 355;21. 2217-25.
Cartmill J, Morgan M, Eyers A. Ethical dilemma for surgical educators. Journal Royal Australiasian College of Surgeons. 2010.207-209.
Coderee S, Wright B, McLaughlin K. To Think Is Good: Querying an Initial Hypothesis Reduces Diagnostic Error in Medical Students. Acad Med. 2010; 85:1125-1129.
Dubeau CE, Voytovich AE, Rippey RM. Premature Conclusions in Diagnosis of Iron-defiency Anemia: Cause and Effect. Medical Decision Making 1986; 6; 169-173.
Dweck, Carol S. Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development. Psychology Press. 2000.
Engel, S. Morris. WITH GOOD REASON (NY: St. Martin's 1994) SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL THINKING, eds. M. Gormanm R. Tweney and D. Gooding (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 2005)
Ennis, R. H. (1987). A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In J. B. Baron & R. S. Sternberg (Eds.). Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice (pp. 9-26). New York: W. H. Freeman.
Ennis, R. H. (1991). Critical thinking: A streamlined conception.Teaching Philosophy, 14, 5-25.
Ericsson KA. Deliberate Practice and the Acquisition and Maintenance of Expert Performance in Medicine and Related Domains. Acad. Med. 7 9, No. 10/October Supplement, 2004.
Ericsson KA. Deliberate Practice and Acquisition of Expert Performance: A General Overview. Acad Emerg Med. 2008; 15:988–994.
Ericsson KA. An expert-performance perspective of research on medical expertise: the study of clinical performance. Medical Education 2007: 41: 1124–1130
Ericsson KA, Prietula MJ, Cokely ET. The Making of An Expert. Harvard Business Review July-August, 2007.
Eva K. What every teacher needs to know about clinical reasoning. MEDICAL EDUCATION. 2004;39:98-106
Eva KW, Cunnington JW. The Difficulty with Experience: Does Practice Increase Susceptibility to Premature Closure? The Journal of Continuing Education in Health Professions 2006; 26; 192-198.
Eva K, Link C, Lutfey K, McKinlay J.Swapping Horses Midstream: Factors Related to Physicians’ Changing Their Minds About a Diagnosis. Acad Med. 2010; 85:1112-1117.
Eva K, Norman G. Heuristics and biases—a biased perspective on clinical reasoning. MEDICAL EDUCATION 2005;39:870-872. Facione, P. A. (2006). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press.
Facione, P. A. & Facione N. C. (1992). The California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press.
Facione, P.A., Facione N. C., and Giancarlo, C. The Disposition Toward Critical Thinking: Its Character, Measurement, and Relationship to Critical Thinking Skills. Journal of Informal Logic, Vol. 20 No. 1 (2000) 61-84.
Goldman, Stuart. (2011). Enhancing Adult Learning in Clinical Supervision. Academic Psychiatry;35:302-306.
Graber ML, Franklin N, Gordon R. Diagnostic Error in Internal Medicine. Arch Internal Medicine 2005; 165; 1493-1499.
Groves M, O’Rourke P, Alexander H. The clinical reasoning characteristics of diagnostic experts.Medical Teacher. May 2003;25:308-313.
Groves M, O’Rourke P, Alexander H. Clinical reasoning: the relative contribution of
identification, interpretation and hypothesis errors to misdiagnosis. Medical Teacher, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2003, pp. 621-625.
Gurrero, Anthony P.S. Mechanistic Case Diagramming: A Tool for
Problem-based Learning. Academic Medicine. 2001. Vol 76, No 4.
Harasym P, Tsai TC, Hemmati P. Current Trends in Developing Medical Students’ Critical Thinking Abilities. Kaohsiung J Med Sci July 2008;24:341-55.
Heneghan C, Glasziou P, Thompson M, Rose P, Balla J, Lasserson D, Perera R. Diagnostic Strategies Used in Primary Care. BMJ 2009; 338; 1003-1012.
Hilliard, J. Becoming a truly helpful teacher: considerably more challenging and potential more fun, than merely doing business as usual. Adv Physio Edu. 2007; 31:312-317.
Holyoak, Keith. The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Cambridge University Press. 2005.
Holyoak, Keith. The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. Cambridge University Press. 2006.
Janis, Irving. Crucial Decisions: Leadership in Policymaking and Crisis Management. The Free Press. 1989.
Jenicek, Milos. Hitchcock, David L. Logic and Critical Thinking in Medicine. AMA Press. 2005.
Kaplan, David M. (2007). Clear Writing, Clear Thinking and the Disappearing Art of the Problem List. Society of Hospital Medicine.
Kassirer JP. Diagnostic Reasoning. Annals of Internal Medicine 1989; 110; 893-900.
Kassirer JP. Teaching Clinical Reasoning: Case-Based and Coached. Acad Med. 2010; 85:1118-1124.
Kassirer JP. Does instant access to compiled information undermine clinical cognition? Lancet 2010;376:1510-11.
Kassirer JP, Wong J, Kopelman R. Learning Clinical Reasoning, 2nd edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2010.
Klein J. Five pitfalls in decisions about diagnosis and prescribing. BMJ. April 2, 2005;330:781-783.
Kruglanski, A., & Webster, D. (1996). Motivated closing of the mind: Seizing and Freezing. Psychological Review, 103(2), 263-283.
Krupat, Edward. Thinking critically about critical thinking: ability, disposition, or both? Medical Education. 2011; 45. Pp. 625-635.
Kuhn, Deanna. A Developmental Model of Critical Thinking. Educational Researcher. Vol 28, No 2. March 1999. Pp 16-25.
Kuhn GJ. Diagnostic Errors. Academic Emergency Medicine 2002; 9; 740-750.
Langer, E. (1989). Mindfulness. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Mamede, Silvia. Effect of Availability Bias and Reflective Reasoning on Diagnostic Accuracy Among Internal Medicine Residents. 2010. JAMA. 304;11. Pp. 1198-1203.
Mayer R. Applying the science of learning to medical education. Medical Education 2010: 44: 543–549
Mayer R.Applying the Science of Learning: Evidence-Based Principles for the Design of Multimedia Instruction. American Psychologist. November, 2008; 760-769.
Moore A, Butt D, Ellis-Clarke J, Cartmill J. Linguistic Analysis of verbal and non-verbal communication in the operating room. ANZ J Surg. 2010;80:925-929.
Mylopoulos, Maria. Regehr, Glenn. (2007). Cognitive metaphors of expertise and knowledge:prospects and limitations for medical education. Medical Education. 41;12. 1159-1165.
Norman G. The Epistemology of Clinical Reasoning: Perspectives from Philosophy, Psychology and Neuroscience. Acad Med. 2000 Supplement; 75:S127-S133.
Norman GR, Schmidt HG. The psychological basis of problem based learning: A review of the evidence. Acad Med 1991;67:557-565.
Norman G.Research in clinical reasoning: past history and current trends. MEDICAL EDUCATION 2005;39:418-427.
Norman G. Teaching basic science to optimize transfer. Med Teach. 2009 Sept;31(9):807-11.
Norman G, Eva K. Diagnostic error and clinical reasoning. MEDICAL EDUCATION. January 2010;44:94-100.
Norman G, Young M, Brooks L.Non-analytical models of clinical reasoning: the role of experience. MEDICAL EDUCATION 2007;41:1140-1145
Norris, S. P. (1992). Testing for the disposition to think critically. Informal Logic, 2 & 3, 157-164.
Perkins, D.N., Jay, E. & Tishman, S. (1993). New conceptions ofthinking: From ontology to education. Educational Psychologist, 28 (1), 67-85.
Perkins, D.N. Making Thinking Visible.
Perkins, David N., Eileen Jay, and Shari Tishman. "Beyond Abilities: A Dispositional Theory of Thinking." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 39, no. 1 (1993): 1-21.
Perkins, D.N. Salomon, Gavriel. Are Cognitive Skills Context-Bound? Educational Researcher, Vol. 18, No. 1. (Jan. - Feb., 1989), pp. 16-25.
Perkins, D.N. Salomon, Gavriel. Teaching for Transfer. Educational Leadership. 1998.
Perkins, D. N., Tishman, S., Ritchhart, R., Donis, K., & Andrade. A. (2000). Intelligence in the wild: A dispositional view of intellectual traits. Educational Psychology Review, 12(3), 269-293.
Pottier, Pierre. Exploring how students think: a new method combining think-aloud and concept mapping protocols. Medical Education. 2010. 44: 926-935.
Prince, Michael J. Felder, Richard M. (2006). Inductive Teaching and Learning Methods: Definitions, comparisons and research bases. Journal of Engineering Education.
Quirk, Mark. Intuition and Metacognition in Medical Education: Keys to Developing Expertise. 2006. Springer Publishing Company.
Redelmeir DA, The Cognitive Psychology of Missed Diagnoses. Annals of Internal Medicine 2005; 142; 115-120.
Redelmeir DA, Ferris L, Tu J, Hux J, Schull M. Problems for clinical judgement: introducing cognitive psychology as one more basic science. JAMC. February 6, 2001;164:358-360.
Ritchhart, R. & Perkins, D.N. (2005).Learning to Think: The Challenges of Teaching Thinking. K. Holyoak and R. Morrison (Eds.) Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. (pp. 775-802). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ritchhart, R., & Perkins, D.N. (2005).Learning to think: The challenges of teaching thinking. In K. Holyoak & R.G. Morrison (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Redelmeir D, Shafir E. Medical Decision Making in Situations That Offer Multiple Alternatives. JAMA. 1995;273:302-305.
Ritchhart, Ron. Perkins, David. Life in the Mindful Classroom: Nurturing the Disposition of Mindfulness. Journal of Social Issues. 2000. Vol 56, No 1. Pp 27-47.
Samuels M, Ropper A. Ann Inter Med. 2005 (letter in response to Choudhry NK, Fletcher RH, Soumerai SB. Systematic review: the relationship between clinical experience and quality of health care. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:260-73.)
Scheffler, I. (1977). In praise of the cognitive emotions. Teachers College Record, 79, 171-186.
Schiff GD, Hasan O, Kim S, Abrams R, Cosby K, Lambert BL, Elstein AS, Hasler S, Kabongo ML, Krosnjar N, Odwazny R, Wisniewski MF, McNutt RA. Diagnostic Error in Medicine. Arch Intern Med 2009. 20; 1881-1887.
Stanovich, Keith E. On the Relative Independence of Thinking Biases and Cognitive Ability. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008 Apr;94(4):672-95.
Stanovich, Keith E. Who is Rational? Studies of Individual Differences in Reasoning. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 1999.
Sternberg, Robert J.Abilities Are Forms of Developing Expertise. Educational Researcher. Vol. 27, No. 3 (Apr., 1998) Pp. 11-20.
Sternberg, Robert J. Culture, Instruction, and Assessment. Comparative Education. Vol. 43, No. 1, Special Issue (33): Western Psychological and Educational Theory and Practice in Diverse Contexts (Feb., 2007) Pp. 5 - 22.
Sternberg, Robert J. Teaching Critical Thinking: Eight Easy Ways to Fail before You Begin. The Phi Delta Kappan. Vol. 68, No. 6 (Feb, 1987) Pp. 456-459.
Sternberg, Robert J. Teaching Critical Thinking, Part 1: Are We Making Critical Mistakes? The Phi Delta Kappan. Vol. 67, No. 3 (Nov., 1985) (pp. 194-198)
Sternberg, Robert J. Teaching Critical Thinking, Part 2: Possible Solutions. The Phi Delta Kappan. Vol. 67, No. 4 (Dec., 1985) (pp. 277-280)
Sternberg, Robert J. What is an "Expert Student?" Educational Researcher. Vol. 32, No. 8, Theme Issue: Expertise (Nov, 2003) Pp. 5-9.
Sternberg, Robert J. What is Wisdom and How can We Develop it? Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 591, Positive Development: Realizing the Potential of Youth (Jan., 2004) Pp. 164-174.
Tishman, Shari. Jay, Eileen. Perkins, David. (1993). Teaching Thinking Dispositions: From transmission to enculturation. Theory into Practice. 32; 3. Pp. 147-153.
Tishman, Shari. Perkins, David. The Language of Thinking. The Phi Delta Kappan. Vol 78, No 5. Jan 1997. Pp 368-374.
Tishman, Shari. Palmer, Patricia. Visible Thinking. 2005. Leadership Compass.
Tishman, Shari. Why teach Habits of mind? Discovering and Exploring Habits of Mind, ed. Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick (Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2000), 41-52.
Tishman, S. (1994). What makes a good thinker: A look at thinking dispositons. Harvard Graduate School of Education Alumni Bulletin, vol39, 1.
Torre, D.M. A qualitative evaluation of medical student learning with concept maps. Medical Teacher. 2007. 29: 949-955.
Tversky A, Kahneman D. Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Science. Sept. 27, 1974;185:1124-1131.
Tversky A, Kahneman D. The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice. Science. January 30, 1981;211:453-458.
Vickrey BG, Samuels MA, Ropper AH. How Neurologists Think A Cognitive Psychology Perspective on Missed Diagnoses. Ann Neurol 2010; 67; 425-433.
Willingham DT. Critical Thinking. AMERICAN EDUCATOR SUMMER 2007.
Wiske, Martha Stone, ed. Teaching for Understanding. John Wiley & Sons. 1998.
Woods N, Neville A, Levinson A, Howey E, Oczkowski W, Norman G. The Value of Basic Science in Clinical Diagnosis. Acad Med. 2006. 81 (10 Suppl); S124-S127.
Zohar, Anat. Dori, Yehudit J. Higher Order Thinking Skills and Low-Achieving Students: Are They Mutually Exclusive? The Journal of the Learning Sciences. Vol. 12, No. 2 (2003), pp. 145-181.
Past Events of Interest
HMS Annual Symposium on the Science of Learning
The Challenge of Critical Thinking in Medical Education
Date: May 9, 2008
Location: Harvard Medical School, Armenise Amphitheatre
As medicine becomes increasingly complex, the information that physicians are asked to digest becomes increasingly complicated. Unless we are mindful of these complexities, we have a very powerful tendency to ignore what is unfamiliar and to embrace that which we have seen before. In many instances, this is a necessary adaptation. We often do not have the luxury of actively considering all that we might know about a given medical problem, and we therefore rely a great deal on pattern recognition. This process is both essential to the practice of medicine but also ripe with the potential for error and miscalculation. What are the underlying mechanisms that cause these processes? To address that issue we have invited experts in the field of critical thinking and decision making.
Speakers: David Perkins, PhD; Ed Furshpan, PhD; Steven Schlozman, MD
Thinking Twice: Fast Cognition, Slow Cognition and the Challenge of Critical Thinking
David N. Perkins, PhD
Senior Professor of Education
Harvard Graduate School of Education
Research on competence in both everyday matters and professional practice reveals that we develop two cognitive resources toward making good critical judgments. "Fast cognition" operates intuitively through pattern recognition to offer quick assessments that often prove insightful and accurate. "Slow cognition" operates analytically through stepwise reasoning. Although much more cumbersome, it provides a check on the sometimes hasty judgments of fast cognition as well as a deliberate approach to situations where one lacks well-developed patterns. A good partnership between the fast and the slow is a tricky mix that takes years to develop and benefits from educational attention.
Networks of Knowledge; Networks of Neurons
Edwin Furshpan, PhD
Robert Henry Pfeiffer Professor of Neurobiology, Emeritus
Harvard Medical School
How does the human nervous system, an organ system made of cells, carry out its remarkable high-level functions? Its hundreds of billions of neurons are interconnected, with great specificity, by hundreds of trillions of synapses and, in this way, are organized into myriad circuits ("communications networks") that make "computations." The nature of the "computations," the ways in which knowledge is encoded in the networks, and the notion that new knowledge is added through modification of synapses, will be discussed. Vulnerabilities in the ways knowledge is "represented" by neuronal activities will be considered.